Chapter 5: Local Action Plan
Long Term Initiatives (Index)

This section consists of six long term initiatives.

Urban Planning

The field of urban planning connects many topics discussed in this guide, such as, energy infrastructure; environmental and land management; construction and architecture; transportation infrastructure and much more.  ..[read more]


Agriculture contributes an estimated 20% of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are responsible for global warming. Plowing the soil causes the release of significant amounts of carbon previously fixed in soil structure by speeding the microbial activity that causes decomposition of the organic matter in the soil. Conventional farming activities also release substantial amounts of methane and nitrous oxide. Methane is produced by the decomposition of organic matter like crop residues and also by the digestive processes of grazing livestock like cattle. The excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer contributes …[read more]

Fuel Transitions

This section discusses the opportunities that may exist to use fuels other than the conventional, carbon intensive ones. High levels of uncertainty and risk in the international oil market have caused a tremendous amount of volatility in domestic oil prices over the past few decades. To hedge their bets against high energy prices, many cities have begun to diversify their fuel sources. Making such a switch has advantages to communities beyond reducing carbon. Most towns now spend approximately 20% of their gross income purchasing energy from outside the community….[read more]

Sustainable Energy

Every community can move toward supplying its energy in ways that are clean, secure, affordable, and that meet citizens’ needs abundantly. This is called a sustainable energy system. Achieving it will mean increasing the supply of energy that comes from locally based, renewable sources. It will also mean using sources of energy more efficiently. Many communities are already moving in this direction. You can, too….[read more]



Education is one of the most important long-term initiatives that a city can use to address its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Through education, a city gains greater engagement and support from the community to reduce carbon emissions. At the same time, education fosters critical thinking and nurtures the environmental leaders and experts of the future….[read more]


Waste Management

This process of generating garbage and what becomes of it when it is thrown away produces greenhouse gases (GHGs) in a variety of ways. There is an enormous amount that a community can do to reduce the waste that it produces. Helping citizens reduce waste is part of a program to protect the climate….[read more]